Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stim
Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana repetitiva (EMTr)
Depressão, Estimulação Magnética, EMTr
Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research.
Rossi S, Hallett M, Rossini PM, Pascual-Leone A; The Safety of TMS Consensus Group. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009 Oct 13
This article is based on a consensus conference, which took place in Certosa di Pontignano, Siena (Italy) on March 7-9, 2008, intended to update the previous safety guidelines for the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in research and clinical settings. Over the past decade the scientific and medical community has had the opportunity to evaluate the safety record of research studies and clinical applications of TMS and repetitive TMS (rTMS). In these years the number of applications of conventional TMS has grown impressively, new paradigms of stimulation have been developed (e.g., patterned repetitive TMS) and technical advances have led to new device designs and to the real-time integration of TMS with electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thousands of healthy subjects and patients with various neurological and psychiatric diseases have undergone TMS allowing a better assessment of relative risks. The occurrence of seizures (i.e., the most serious TMS-related acute adverse effect) has been extremely rare, with most of the few new cases receiving rTMS exceeding previous guidelines, often in patients under treatment with drugs which potentially lower the seizure threshold.
, Estimulação Magnética